This reference list represents an initial effort to collect the available bibliography on the Oceanography of the Aegean Sea (Biological, Chemical, Geological and Physical). Our intention is to enrich and improve it with the contribution of the oceanographic community. The biggest part consists of papers published in easily accessible journals. A small number of conference announcements and reports were added to include unpublished research. Finally, several papers are focusing on larger areas of the Mediterranean Sea but include useful information on the Oceanography of the Aegean Sea.

For comments, please contact





Astraldi, M., S. Balopoulos, J. Candela, J. Font, M. Gacic, G. P. Gasparini, B. Manca, A. Theocharis,  J. Tintoré, The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 44(1), 65-108, 1999.


Balopoulos, E., M. B. Collins, THE PELAGOS PROJECT , Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4), v-ix, 1999.


Balopoulos, E. Th., A. Theocharis, H. Kontoyiannis, S. Varnavas, F. Voutsinou-Taliadouri, A. Iona, A. Souvermezoglou, L. Ignatiades, O. Gotsis-Skretas, A. Pavlidou, Major advances in the oceanography of the southern Aegean Sea–Cretan Straits system (eastern Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 44(1),109-130, 1999.

Bange, H. W., S. Rapsomanikis, M. O. Andreae, The Aegean Sea as a source of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane, Marine Chemistry, 53, 41-49, 1996.


Bethoux, J. P., Mean water fluxes across sections in the Mediterranean sea, evaluated on the basis of water and salt budgets and of observed salinities, Ocenol. Acta, 3 (1), 79-88, 1980.


Boscolo, R., H. Bryden, Causes of long term changes in Aegean sea deep ware, Oceanol. Acta, 24(6), 519-527, 2001.


Brasseur, P., J. M. Beckers, J. M. Brankart, R. Schoenauen, Seasonal temperature and salinity in the Mediterranean Sea: climatological analysis of a historical data set, Deep-Sea Res., 43, 159–192, 1996.


Bruce, J. G., H. Charnock, Studies in winter sinking of cold water in the Aegean Sea, Rapp.  Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 18, 773–778, 1965.



Cardin, V., M. Gacic, K. Nittis, V Kovacevic, L. Perini, Sub-inertial variability in the Creatn Sea from M3A buoy, Annales Geophysicae, 21(1), 89–102, 2003.


Christaki, U., F. Van Wambeke, J. R. Dolan, Nanoflagellates (mixotrophs, heterotrophs and autotrophs) in the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean: standing stocks bacterivory and relationship with bacterial production, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 181,297-307, 1999.


Chronis, G., V. Lykousis, C. Anagnostou, A. Karageorgis, S. Stavrakakis, S. Poulos, Sedimentological processes in the southern margin of Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 46, 143– 162,2000.


Chronis, G., V. Lykousis, D. Georgopoulos, V. Zervakis, S. Stavrakakis, S. Poulos, Suspended particulate matter and nepheloid layers in the Southern Margin of the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean): seasonal distribution and dynamics, Prog. Oceanogr., 46, 163– 185,2000.


Collins, M. B., V. Lykousis, G. Ferentinos, Temporal variation in sedimentation patterns: NW Aegean Sea, Marine Geology, 43, 39–48,1981.



Danovaro, R., M. Serresi, Viral density and virus to bacterium ratio in deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean, Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 66, 1857– 1861, 2000.


Danovaro, R., M.  Fabiano, N. Della Croce, Labile organic matter and microbial biomasses in deep-sea sediments (E. Mediterranean Sea), Deep-Sea Res., 40 (5), 953– 965,1993.


Danovaro, R., N. D. Croce, A. Eleftheriou, M. Fabiano, N. Papadopoulou, C. Smith, A. Tselepides, Meiofauna of the deep Eastern Mediterranean: distribution and abundance in relation to bacterial biomass, organic matter composition and other environmental factors, Prog. Oceanogr., 36, 329–341,1995.


Danovaro, R., D. Marrale,  N. Della Croce, A. Dell’Anno, M. Fabiano, Heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacteria and labile organic compounds in continental shelf and deep-sea sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean, Microbiol. Ecol., 35, 244– 255,1998.


Danovaro, R., A. Dell’Anno, D. Martorano, P. Parodi, D. Marrale, M. Fabiano, Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of deep-sea nematodes: bioenergetic and methodological considerations, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 179, 273–283,1999.


Danovaro, R., A. Dell’Anno, A. Pusceddu, M. Fabiano, Nucleic acid concentrations (DNA, RNA) in the continental and deep-sea sediments of the Eastern Mediterranean: relationships with seasonally varying organic inputs and bacterial dynamics, Deep-Sea Res. I, 46, 1077– 1094, 1999.


Danovaro, R., A. Dinet, G. Duineveld, A. Tselepides, Benthic response to particulate fluxes in different trophic environments: a comparison between the Gulf of Lions– Catalan Sea (W-Mediterranean) and the Cretan Sea (E-Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 287–312, 1999.


Danovaro, R., D. Marrale, N. Della Croce, P. Parodi, M. Fabiano, Biochemical composition of sedimentary OM and bacterial distribution in the Aegean Sea: trophic state and pelagic–benthic coupling, J. Sea Res., 42, 117– 129, 1999.


Danovaro, R., D. Marrale, A. Dell’Anno, N. Della Croce, A. Tselepides, M. Fabiano, Bacterial response to seasonal changes in labile organic matter composition on the continental shelf and bathyal sediments of the Cretan Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 345–366, 2000.


Danovaro, R., A. Tselepides, A. Otegui, N. Della Croce, Dynamics of Meiofaunal assemblages on the continental shelf and deep-sea sediments of the south Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean): relationships with seasonal changes in food supply, Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 367– 400, 2000.


Drakopoulos, P. G., S. E. Poulos, A. Lascaratos, Buoyancy fluxes in the Aegean Sea, Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 35, 134-135, 1998.


Durrieu de Madron, X., F. Nyffeler, E. Balopoulos, G. Chronis, Circulation and distribution of suspended matter in the Sporades Basin (northwestern Aegean Sea, J. Mar. Sys. , 3, 237-248, 1992.



El-Din, S. H. S., A. H. El-Gindy, Characteristics, spreading and mixing of the Intermediate Water Mass and their seasonal variations in the Eastern Mediterranean, Acta Adriatica, 28, 1–2, 1987.


El-Gindy, A. H., S. H. S. El-Din, Water masses and circulation patterns in the deep layer of the Eastern Mediterranean, Oceanol. Acta, 9, 239–248, 1986.


Frangoulis, C., S. Psarra, V. Zervakis, T. Meador, P. Mara, A. Gogou, S. Zervoudaki, A. Giannakourou, P. Pitta, A. Lagaria, E. Krasakopoulou, and I. Siokou-Frangou, Connecting export fluxes to plankton food-web efficiency in the Black Sea waters inflowing into the Mediterranean Sea, J. Plankton Res., 32, 1203-1216, 2010.



Garrett, C., R. Outerbridge, K. Thomson, Interannual variability in Mediterranean heat and buoyancy fluxes, J. Climatol., 6, 900-910, 1993.


Georgopoulos, D., A. Theocharis, G. Zodiatis, Intermediate Water formation in the Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea), Oceanol. Acta, 12, 353–359, 1989


Georgopoulos, D., Water masses and dynamic structure in the Aegean, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Patras, Greece, unpublished, p 310, 2001.


Georgopoulos, D., G. Chronis, V. Zervakis, V. Lykousis, S. Poulos, A. Iona, Hydrology and circulation in the Southern Cretan Sea during the CINCS experiment (May 1994–September 1995), Prog. Oceanogr. 46 (2–4), 89– 112, 2000.


Georgopoulos, D., V. Zervakis, A. Theocharis, K. Nittis, L. Perivoliotis, A. Papadopoulos, The monitoring of the evolution of the hydrological characteristics in the deep basins of the North Aegean Sea, CIESM Workshop Series 16, 79– 81, 2002.


Gilman, G., C, Garrett, Heat flux parameterizations in the Mediterranean sea: The role of atmospheric aerosols and constraints from the water budget, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 5119-5134, 1994.


Goryachkin, Y. N., V.A. Ivanov, A.D. Lisichenok, Short-period internal waves in the frontal zones of non-tidal seas (the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea), Phys. Oceanogr, 1(6), 535-542, 1990.


Gotsis-Skretas, O., K. Pagou, M. Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, L. Ignatiades, Seasonal horizontal and vertical variability in primary production and standing stocks of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the Cretan Sea and the Straits of the Cretan Arc (March 1994–January 1995), Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4), 625-649, 1999.


Hecht, A, I. Gertman, Physical features of the eastern Mediterranean resulting from the integration of POEM data with Russian Mediterranean Cruises, Deep-Sea Res. I, 48, 1847-1876, 2001.


Hopkins, T. S., Physical processes in the Mediterranean basins. In B. Kjerfve, Estuarine transport processes (pp. 269–310), South Carolina, USA, University of South Carolina Press, 1978.


Hyder, P., J. H. Simpson and S. Christopoulos, Sea-breeze forced diurnal surface currents in the Thermaikos Gulf, Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 585-601, 2002.


Hyder, P., J. H. Simpson, S. Christopoulos and Y. Krestenitis, The seasonal cycle of stratification and circulation in the Thermaikos Gulf ROFI, nort-west Aegean,Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 2573-2597, 2002.



Ignatiades, L., The standing stock of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the oligotrophic waters of Southern Aegean Sea, Int. Rev. Gesamten Hydrobiol, 61, 193– 199, 1976.


Ignatiades, L., The productive and optical status of the oligotrophic waters of Southern Aegean Sea (Cretan Sea) Eastern Mediterranean, J. Plankton Res., 20, 985– 995, 1998.


Ignatiades, L., D. Georgopoulos, M. Karydis, Description of the phytoplanktonic community of the oligotrophic waters of the SE Aegean Sea (Mediterranean), P.S.Z.N.I: Mar. Ecol., 82– 83, 1995.

Isari, S., S. Psarra, P. Pitta, P. Mara, M. O. Tomprou, A. Ramfos, S. Somarakis, A. Tselepides, C. Koutsikopoulos, N. Fragopoulu, Differential patterns of mesozooplankters’ distribution in relation to physical and biological variables of the northeastern Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean), Mar. Biol., 151, 1035-105, 2007.



Jakovides, C., G. Papaioannou, H. Mihalopoulou, Evaporation over the Aegean Sea using large-scale parameters, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 41, 255-260, 1989.



Kallianiotis, A., K. Sophronidis, P. Vidoris, A. Tselepides, A., Demersal fish and megafauna assemblages in the Cretan continental shelf and slope (NE Mediterranean): seasonal variation in species density, biomass and diversity, Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 429– 455, 2000.


Kallos, G., S. Nickovic, A.Papadopoulos, D. Jovic, O.Kakaliagou, N.Misirlis, L.Boukas, N.Mimikou, G.Sakellaridis, J.Papageorgiou, E.Anadranistakis, M.Manousakis, The regional weather forecasting system Skiron: An overview, Proceedings of the Symposium on Regional Weather Prediction on Parallel Computer Environments, 109-122, 15-17 October 1997, Athens, Greece, 1997.


Karageorgis, A., C. Anagnostou, D. Georgopoulos, M. Albuisson, Distribution of suspended particulate matter determined by in-situ observations and satellite images in the NW Aegean Sea (Greece), Geo-Marine Let., 20 , 93– 100, 2000.


Karageorgis, A., C. Anagnostou, Particulate matter spatial-temporal distribution and associated surface sediment properties: Thermaikos Gulf and Spoardes Basin, NW Aegean Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 21 , 2141– 2153, 2001.


Katsoulis, V. D.,  The wind conditions in the Aegean Sea, Ph.D. Thesis (unpubl.), Univ. of Athens, Athens, Greece, 1970.


Kerhervé, P., S. Heussner, B. Charrière, S. Stavrakakis, J. Ferrand, A. Monaco, N. Delsaut, Biogeochemistry and dynamics of settling particle fluxes at the Antikythira Strait (Eastern Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4),651-675, 1999.

Klein, B., W. Roether, B. B. Manca, D. Bregant, V. Beitzel, V. Kovacevic, V., A. Luchetta, A., The large deep water transient in the Eastern Mediterranean, Deep-Sea Res. I, 46, 371–414, 1999.


Kontoyiannis, H., A. Theocharis, E. Balopoulos, S. Kioroglou, V. Papadopoulos, M. Collins, A. F. Velegrakis, A. Iona, Water fluxes through the Cretan Arc Straits, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: March 1994– June 1995, Prog. Oceanogr., 44 (4), 511 – 529, 1999.


Korres, G., A. Lascaratos, E. Hatziapostolou, P. Katsafados, Towards an ocean forecasting system for the Aegean Sea, Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 8, 191-218, 2002.


Kourafalou, V. H., H. Kontoyiannis, Y. Krestenitis, K. A. Barbopoulos, The Northwestern Aegean shelf: observations and modelling, XXV Conference of EGS,Geophysical Research Abstracts, 1(2), 391, 1999.


Kourafalou, V. H., River plume development in semi-enclosed Mediterranean regions: North Adriatic Sea and Northwestern Aegean Sea, J. Mar. Sys., 30, 181-205, 2001.


Kourafalou, V. H., K. A. Barbopoulos, A study of the North Aegean Sea circulation with a high resolution nested model, XXVII Conference of EGS,Geophysical Research Abstracts, GRA3, 3512, 2001.


Kourafalou, V. H., K. A. Barbopoulos, High resolution simulations on the North Aegean Sea seasonal circulation, Annales Geophysicae, 21, 511-265, 2003.


Krasakopoulou, E.,  E. Souvermezoglou, A. Pavlidou, H. Kontoyiannis, Oxygen and nutrient fluxes through the Straits of the Cretan Arc (March 1994–January 1995),Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4), 601-624, 1999.


Krasakopoulou, E.,  V. Zervakis, E. Souvermezoglou, D. Georgopoulos, North-eastern Aegean sea: an effort to estimate steady-state N & P budgets,Mediterranean Marine Science., 3(1), 43-54, 2002.


Krestenitis, Y. N.,  L. A. Valioulis, Investigation of deep water mass formation in the N. Aegean Sea basin, in:Free Surface Flow and Hydraulic Software,Eds. W. R. Blaine and K. L. Katsifakis, Hydr. Engin. Soft. Vol. 2, 107-114, 1994.



Lacombe, H., P. Tchernia, G. Benoist, G., Contribution a` l’etude hydrologique de la Mer Egee en periode d’ete, Bull. Inf. COEC, 8, 454– 468, 1958.


Lacombe, H., P. Tchernia, Quelques traits generaux de l’hydrologie mediterraneenne, Cahiers Oceanographiques, 20, 528–547, 1960.


Lacombe, H., P. Tchernia, Caracteres hydrologiques et circulation des eaux en Mediterranee, In: D.J. Stanley, The Mediterranean sea, a natural sedimentation laboratory (pp. 25–36), Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Straudsburg, PA, 1972.


Lascaratos, A., Hydrology of the Aegean Sea, In: H. Charnock, Winds and currents of the Mediterranean Basin (pp. 313–334), NATO Advanced Science Institute: atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Mediterranean Basin, Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography, Harvard University no. 40, 1, 1992.


Lascaratos, A., Estimation of deep and intermediate water mass formation rates in the Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res. II, 40, 1327–1332, 1993.


Lascaratos, A., K. Nittis, A high resolution 3-D numerical study of intermediate water formation in the Levantine Sea, J.  Geophys. Res., 103, 18497–18511, 1998.


Lascaratos, A., W. Roether, K. Nittis, B. Klein, Recent changes in deep water formation and spreading in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: a review, Prog. Ocenogr., 44(1), 5-36, 1999.

Latif, M.A., E. Ozsoy, T. Oguz, U. Unluata, Observations of the Mediterranean inflow into the Black Sea Deep-Sea Res, 38 (Suppl. 2), 711 – 723, 1991.


Lykousis, V., M. B. Collins, G. Ferentinos, Modern sedimentation in the NW Aegean Sea, Marine Geology, 43 111–130, 1981.


Lykousis, V., G. Chronis, Mechanisms of sediment transport and deposition: sediment sequences and accumulation during the Holocene on the Thermaikos plareau, the continental slope and basin (Sporades Basin), Northwestern Aegean Sea, Greece, Marine Geology, 87 15–26, 1989.


Lykousis, V., Subaqueous bedforms on the Cyclades Plateau (NE mediterranean) - evidence of Cretan Deep Water formation?, Cont. Shelf Res.., 21, 495-507, 2001.


Lykousis, V., G. Chronis, A. Tselepidis, N. B. Price, A. Theocharis, I. Sikou-Frangou, F. Van Wambeke, R. Danovaro, S. Stavrakakis, G. Duineveld, D. Georgopoulos, L. Ignatiades, A. Souvermezoglou,  F. Voutsinou-Taliadouri, Major outputs of the recent multidisciplinary biogeochemical researches undertaken in the Aegean Sea, J. Mar. Sys., 33-34, 313-334, 2002.



Magiopoulos, I. and P. Pitta, Viruses in a deep oligotrophic sea: Seasonal distribution of marine viruses in the epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res. I, 66, 1-10, 2012.

Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., A. Hecht, Large-scale properties of the Eastern Mediterranean: a review, Oceanol. Acta, 11, 323–335, 1988.


Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., B. B. Manca, M. R. d’Alcala, A. Theocharis, S. Brenner, G. Budillon, E. Ozsoy, The Eastern Mediterranean in the 80s and in the 90s: the big transition in the intermediate and deep circulations, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 29, 365-395, 1999.


Manca, B., A. Theocharis, S. Brenner, H. Kontoyiannis, E. Sansone, Water masses and transports between the Aegean and Levantine basins during LIWEX '95, NATO Science Seies - Envirinmental Security: The Eastern Mediterranean as a laboratory Basin for the Assessment of Contrasting Ecosystems, 51, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 483-494, 1999.


May, P. W., Climatological flux estimates in the Mediterranean Sea: Part 1. Winds and wind stresses, Naval Ocean research and Development Activity, Rep. 54, NSTL Station, Mississippi, 53 pp., 1982.


May, P. W., Climatological flux estimates in the Mediterranean Sea, Part 2. Air-sea fluxes, Naval Ocean research and Development Activity, Rep. 58, NSTL Station, Mississippi, 65 pp., 1983.


Miller, A. R., Physical oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea: a discourse, Extrait des Rapports et Proces-Verbaux des Reunions de la CIESM, 17, 857–871, 1963.


Miller, A.R., Deep convection in Aegean Sea. In: Processus de formation des eaux oceaniques profondes, en particulier en Mediterranee Occidentale, Colloques Internationaux du CNRS, 215, 155–163, 1974.


Moeseneder, M., C. Winter, G. H. Herndl, Horizontal and vertical complexity of attached and free-living bacteria of the eastern Mediterranean Sea determined by 16S rDNA and 16S r RNA fingerprints, Limnol. Oceanogr., 46 (1), 95– 107, 2001.



Nielsen, J.N., Hydrography of the Mediterranean and Adjacent Waters, in Report of the Danish Oceanographic Expedition 1908 –1910 to the Mediterranean and Adjacent Waters, V. 1, Copenhagen, pp. 72– 191, 1912.


Nittis, K., The variability of the Aegean and Ionian Sea on the synoptic and seasonal time scale, Ph. D. Thesis, (unpubl.), University of Athens, Athens, Greece, 1993.


Nittis, K., V. Zervakis, L. Perivoliotis, A. Papadopoulos, G. Chronis, Operational monitor and forecasting in the Aegean Sea: system limitations and forecasting skill evaluations, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 43, 154-163, 2001.


Nittis, K., A. Lascaratos, L. Perivoliotis, A numerical study of the Aegean Sea general circulation, Rapp. Comm. Int.  Mar Medit., 34, 190, 1995.


Nittis, K., A. Lascaratos, Diagnostic and prognostic numerical studies of LIW formation, J.  Mar. Sys., 18, 179–195, 1998.


Nittis, K., V. Zervakis, E. Papgeorgiou, L. Perivoliotis, Atmospheric and oceanic observations from the Poseidon buoy network: Initial results, Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 8, 87–99, 2002.


Nittis, K., L. Perivoliotis, Circulation and hydrological characteristics of the North Aegean Sea: a contribution from real-time buoy measurements, Mediterranean Marine Science, 3(1), 21–31, 2002.


Nittis, K., C. Tziavos, I. Thanos, P. Drakopoulos, V. Cardin, M. Gacic, G. Petihakis, R. Basana, The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A): System Development and initial results, Annales Geophysicae, 21(1), 75–88, 2003.



Obernosterer, I., G. Kraay, E. de Ranitz, G. J. Herndl, Concentrations of low molecular weight carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) and the turnover of pyruvate, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 20, 147–156, 2000.


Oguz, T., I. H. Sur, A two-layer model of water exchange through the Dardanelles Strait, Oceanol. Acta, 12 (1), 23-31, 1989.


Ovchinnikov, I.M., Circulation in the surface and intermediate layers of the Mediterranean, Oceanology, 6, 48– 59, 1966.


Ovchinnikov, I.M., E. A. Plakhin, L. V. Moskalenko, K. V. Neglyard, A. S. Osadchiy, A. F. Fedoseyev, K. V. Krivoshea,  K. V. Voytova, Hydrology of the Mediterranean Sea, Gidrometeoizdat (edition), Leningrad, p. 283 (In Russian), 1976.


Ovchinnikov, I. M., The Formation of Intermediate Water in the Mediterranean, Oceanology, 24, 168–173, 1984.


Ozsoy, E., A. Hecht, U. Unluata, U., Circulation and hydrography of the Levantine Basin. Results of POEM coordinated experiments 1985-1986, Prog. Oceanogr., 22, 125–170, 1989.


Ozturgut, E., The source and spreading of the Levantine intermediate water in the Eastern Mediterranean, Saclant Antisubmarine Warfare Res. Cen. Memor. SM-92, La Spezia, Italy, 45 pp, 1976.



Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M. A., I. Siokou-Frangou, A. Theocharis, D. Georgopoulos, Zooplankton vertical distribution in relation to the hydrology in the NW Levantine and the SE Aegean seas (spring 1986), Oceanol. Acta., 15, 365-381, 1992.


Papageorgiou, E., A. Theocharis, G. Zodiatis, D. Georgopoulos, Water exchanges between the SE Aegean and Levantine basins through the eastern straits of the Cretan Arc (October 1987), EGS-XV General Assembly Copenhagen, 23–27 April 1990, Annales Geophysicae, Special Issue, 189–190, 1990.


Petihakis G., G. Triantafyllou, A. Theodorou, A numerical approach to simulate nutrient dynamics and primary production of a semi-enclosed coastal ecosystem (Pagasitikos Gulf, Western Aegean, Greece), Period. Biol., 102(1), 339-348, 2000.


Petihakis G., G. Triantafyllou, C. G. Koutitas, Prediction and prevention of oil contamination and monitoring of the benthic structure and related fisheries in connection with the pollution impact, Syst. An. Model. Simul., 41(1), 169-197, 2001.


Pitta, P., and A. Giannakourou, Planktonic ciliate~in the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean: vertical, spatial distribution and mixotrophy, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 194, 269-282,2000.

The POEM Group, General Circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean, Earth Science Rev., 32, 285–309, 1992.


Pollak, M. I., The sources of the Deep Water in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, J.  Mar. Res., 10, 128–152, 1951.


Pollani, A., G. Triantafyllou, G. Petihakis, K. Nittis, C. Dounas, C. Koutitas, The POSEIDON operational tool for the prediction of floating pollutant transport, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 43(7-12), 270-278, 2001.


Poulos, S. E., M. B. Collins, X. Ke, Fluvial/wave interaction controls on delta formation for ephemeral rivers discharging into microtidal waters, Geo-Marine Let., 13, 24-31, 1993.


Poulos, S. E., P. G. Drakopoulos, M. B. Collins, Seasonal variability in sea surface oceanographic conditions in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean): an overview, J. Mar. Sys., 13, 225-244, 1997.


Poulos, S. E., M. B. Collins, G. Chronis, V. Lykousis, Thermaikos Gulf Coastal system, NW Aegean Sea: an overview of water/sediment fluxes in relation to air-land-ocean interactions and human activities, J. Mar. Sys., 25, 47-76, 2000.


Price, B., F. S., J. M.  Lindsay, J. M. Pates, The biochemistry of major elements of the suspended particulate matter of the Cretan Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 44 (4), 677–699, 1999.


Psarra, S., A. Tselepides, L. Ignatiades, Primary production in the oligotrophic Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean): seasonal and interannual variability, Prog. Oceanogr, 46 (2–4), 2000.



Robinson, A. R., M. Golnaraghi, W. G. Leslie, A. Artegiani, A. Hecht, E. Lazzoni, A. Michelato, E. Sansone, A. Theocharis, U. Unluata, The eastern Mediterranean general circulation: features, structure and variability, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 15, 215–240, 1991.


Robles, F. L. E., M. B. Collins, G. Ferentinos, Water masses in Thermaikos Gulf, north-western Aegean Sea, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 16, 363-378, 1983.


Roether, W., R. Schlitzer, Eastern Mediterranean deep water renewal on the basis of CFM and tritium data, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 15, 333– 354, 1991.


Roether, W., B. B. Manca, B. Klein, D. Bregant, D. Georgopoulos, V. Beitzel, V. Kovac¡evic, A. Luchetta, Recent changes in Eastern Mediterranean Deep Waters, Science 271, 333– 335, 1996.


Roether, W., B. Klein, V. Beitzel, V., B. B. Manca, Property distributions and transient-tracer ages in Levantine intermediate water in the Eastern Mediterranean, J.  Mar. Syst., 18, 71–87, 1998.


Roether, W., V. Beitzel, J. Sueltenfuss, A. Putzka, The Eastern Mediterranean tritium distribution in 1987, J.  Mar. Syst., 20, 49–61, 1999.



Savvidis, Y. G., C. G. Koutitas, Y. N. Krestenitis, V. H. Kourafalou, Stochastic model simulations on the transport of river-borne sediment paricles: Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea, XXVII Conference of EGS, Geophysical Research Abstracts, GRA3, 3531, 2001


Schlitzer, R., W. Roether, H. Oster, H. Junghans, M. Hausmann, H. Johannsen, A. Michelato, Chlorofluoromenthane and oxygen in the Eastern Mediterranean, Deep-Sea Res., 38, 1531, 1991


Sempere, R., G. Panagiotopoulos, R. Lafont, B. Marroni, F. Van Wambeke, Total Organic Carbon dynamics in the Aegean Sea, J. Mar. Syst., 33–34, 355– 364, 2002.


Siokou-Frangou, I., M. A. Pancucci-Papadopoulou, P. Kouyoufas, Etude de la repartition du zooplankton dans les mers Egee et Ionienne, Rapp. Comm. Int. Medit., 32 (1), 221, 1990.


Siokou-Frangou, I., E. D. Christou, N. Fragopoulu, M. G. Mazzocchi, Mesozooplankton distribution from Sicily to Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean): II. Copepod assemblages, Oceanol. Acta, 20 (3), 521– 535, 1997.


Siokou-Frangou, I., M. Bianchi, U. Christaki, E. Christou, A. Giannakourou, O. Gotsis, L. Ignatiades, K. Pagou, P. Pitta, S. Psarra, E. Souvermezoglou, F. Van Wambeke, V. Zervakis, Carbon flow in the planktonic food web along a gradient of oligotrophy in the Aegean Sea (Mediterranean), J. Mar. Syst., 33–34, 335– 353, 2002.


Skliris, N., Mantziafou, A., Sofianos, S. , Gkanasos, A., Satellite-derived variability of the Aegean Sea ecohydrodynamics, Continental Shelf Research, 30 (5), pp. 403-418, 2010.

Skliris, N., S. Sofianos, A. Gkanasos, A. Mantziafou, V. Vervatis, P. Axaopoulos, A. Lascaratos, Decadal scale variability of sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea in relation to atmospheric variability, Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-011-0493-5, 2011.

Skliris, N., S. S. Sofianos, A. Gkanasos, P. Axaopoulos, A. Mantziafou, V. Vervatis, Long-term sea surface temperature variability in the Aegean Sea, Advances in Oceanography and Limnology, 2:2, 125-139, 2011.

Souvermezoglou, E., Distribution of nutrients and oxygen in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, In: Proceedings of the UNESCO/IOC second POEM workshop (pp. 85–102). Trieste, Italy, 1988. POEM Scientific Reports, no. 3, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1989.


Souvermezoglou, E., E. Hatzigeorgiou, I. Pampidis, K. Siapsali, Distribution and seasonal variability of nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the northeastern Ionian Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 15, 585–594,1992.


Souvermezoglou, E., E. Krasakopoulou, Evolution of oxygen and nutrients deep circulation through the straits of the Cretan Arc: impact on the deep layers of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, CIESM Workshop Series, 5, 196– 197, 1998.


Souvermezoglou, E., E. Krasakopoulou, A. Pavlidou, Temporal variability in oxygen and nutrient concentrations in the S. Aegean sea and the Straits of the Cretan Arc, Prog. Oceanogr., 44 (4), 573– 699, 1999.


Souvermezoglou, E., E. Krasakopoulou, Chemical oceanography in the Cretan Sea: Changes associated to the Transient, Mediterranean Marine Science, 1(2), 91– 103, 2000.


Souvermezoglou, E., E. Krasakopoulou, High oxygen consumption rates in the deep layers of the North Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean), Mediterranean Marine Science, 3(1), 55– 65, 2002.


Stanley, J., C. Perissoratis, Aegean ridge barrier and basin sedimentation patterns, Mar. Geol., 24, 97– 107, 1977.


Stavrakakis, S., G. Chronis, G. Tselepidis,  S. Heussner, A. Monaco, A. Abbasi, Downward fluxes of settling particles in the deep Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 217 –240, 2000.


Stergiou, K.I., E. D. Christou, D. Georgopoulos, A. Zenetos, A., C. Souvermezoglou, The hellenic seas: physics, chemistry, biology and fisheries. Ansell, A.D., Gibson, R.N., Barnes, M. (Eds.), An Annual Review Oceanography and Marine Biology, vol. 35, pp. 415–538, 1977.


Stergiou, K., D. Georgopoulos, The fishery of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, and the distribution of chlorophyll-like pigment in Hellenic waters, NAGA, 16(2-3), 34-37, 1993.


Stergiou, K., A. Lascaratos, Climatic variability and the anchovy/sardine ratio in Hellenic waters, GeoJournal, 41(3), 245-254, 1996.


Stratfort, K., K. Haines, Modelling changes in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation 1987-1995, J. Marine Sys., 33-34, 51-62, 2002.



Theocharis, A., E. Papageorgiou, G. Zodiatis, G., Flows and water mass exchanges between the Aegean and Ionian Seas through the Straits of Kithira and Antikithira (late summer 1987), Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 32, 174, 1990.


Theocharis, A., Deep water formation and circulation in the Aegean Sea. In: Winds and currents of the Mediterranean basin, Proceedings of the Workshop held at Santa Teresa, La Spezia, Italy, NATO Advanced Science Institute (ASI): Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulation in the Mediterranean Basin, 7–14 September (1983, H. Charnock), Harvard University Report in Meteorology and Oceanography 41, 1, 335–359, 1992.


Theocharis, A., D. Georgopoulos, P. Karagevrekis, A. Iona, L. Perivoliotis, N. Charalambidis, Aegean influence in the deep layers of the Eastern Ionian Sea (October 1991), Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Medit., 33, 235, 1992.


Theocharis, A., D. Georgopoulos, G. Zodiatis G., Late winter hydrological characteristics and circulation of the Cretan Sea (S. Aegean), EGS XIII General Assembly, Bologna, Italy, March, 1988, Annales Geophysicae, Special Issue, 70, 1988.


Theocharis, A., D. Georgopoulos, Dense water formation over the Samothraki and Lemnos plateaus in the North Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea), Cont. Shelf Res. 13 (8/9), 919– 939, 1993.


Theocharis, A., D. Georgopoulos, A. Lascaratos, K. Nittis, Water masses and circulation in the central region of the Eastern Mediterranean: Eastern Ionian, South Aegean and Northwest Levantine, 1986– 87, Deep-Sea Res. II, 40 (6), 1121– 1142, 1993.


Theocharis, A., E. Balopoulos, S. Kioroglou, H. Kontoyiannis, A. Iona, A synthesis of the circulation and hydrography of the South Aegean sea and the Straits of the Cretan Arc (March 1994 – January 1995), Prog. Oceanogr., vol. 44 (4), pp. 469– 509, 1999.


Theocharis, A., K. Nittis, H. Kontoyiannis, E. Papageorgiou, E. Balopoulos, Climatic changes in the Aegean Sea influence the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (1986–1997),  Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 (11), 1617–1620, 1999.


Theocharis, A., B. Klein, K. Nittis, W. Roether, Evolution and status of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (1997–1999),  J. Mar. Sys.., 33-34, 91–116, 2002.


Theocharis, A., A. Lascaratos, S. Sofianos, Variability of sea water properties in the Ionian, Creatan and Levantine seas during the last century,  CIESM Workshop Series, 16, 71–74, 2002.


Theodorou, A. J., Physical oceanographic studies for the design of the Athens Sea outfall (Saronikos Gulf, Greece), Water Sci. Technol., 25(9), 31-40, 1992.


Theodorou, A., A. Theocharis, E. Balopoulos, Circulation in the Cretan Sea and adjacent regions in late winter 1994, Oceanol. Acta, 20(4), 585-596, 1997.


Theodorou, A., A. Theocharis, E. Balopoulos, Hydrological structure of the Cretan Sea and adjacent regions in late winter 1994,Boll. di Ocenografia Teoritica ed Applicata, 38, 103-118, 1997.


Theoharatos, G. A., I. G. Tselepidaki, The temperature of the sea-surface in the region of the Aegean and its relation to air temperature, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 42, 117-119, 1990.


Therianos, A. D., Rainfall and geographical distribution of river runoff in Greece, Bull. Geol. Soc. Greece, XI, 28-58, 1974 [in Greek].


Triantafyllou G.N., G. Petihakis, K. Dounas, D. Koutsoubas, C. Arvanitidis, A. Eleftheriou, Temporal variations on benthic communities and their behavior to physicochemical forcing: A numerical approach, J. Mar. Sci., 57(5), 1507-1516, 2000.


Triantafyllou G. N., G. Petihakis G., A. I. Pollani, Numerical modelling - An environmental management approach for waste disposal in the marine environment, Syst. An. Model. Simul., 39(1), 101-129, 2000.


Triantafyllou, G., G. Petihakis, C. Dounas, A. Theodorou, Assessing marine ecosystem response to nutrient inputs, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 43(7-12), 175-1862001.


Tselepidaki, I., B. Zarifis, D. N. Asimakopoulos, Low precipitation over Greece during 1989–1990, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 46, 115–121, 1992.


Tselepides, A., T. Polychronaki, The CINCS project: introduction, Prog. Oceanogr. 46 (2– 4), 85– 88, 2000.


Tselepides, A., V. Zervakis, T. Polychronaki,  R. Danovaro, G. Chronis, Distribution of nutrients and particulate organic matter in relation to the prevailing hydrographic features of the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 113 –142, 2000.


Tselepides, A., T. Polychronaki, D. Marrale, I. Akoumianaki,  A. Dell’Anno, A. Pusceddu, R. Danovaro, Organic matter composition of the continental shelf and bathyal sediments of the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 311 –344, 2000.


Tselepides, A., N. Papadopoulou, D. Podaras, W. Plaiti, D. Koutsoubas, Macrobenthic community structure over the continental margin of Crete (South Aegean Sea NE Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr. 46 (2–4), 401–428, 2000.


Tsimplis, M. N., G. N. Vlahakis, Meteorological forcing and sea level variability in the Aegean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 9879–9890, 1994.


Tsimplis, M. N., A. F. Velegrakis, A. Theocharis, M. B. Collins, Low-frequency current variability at the Straits of Crete, Eastern Mediterranean, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25005–25020, 1997.


Tsimplis, M. N., A. F. Velegrakis, P. Drakopoulos, A. Theocharis, M. B. Collins, Cretan deep water outflow into the Eastern Mediterranean, Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4), 531-551, 1999.


Tsimplis, M. N., S. Josey, Forcing of the Mediterranean Sea by atmospheric oscillations over the North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Let., 28, 803-806, 2001.


Tsimplis, M. N., M. Rixen, Sea level in the Mediterranean Sea: The contribution of temperature and salinity changes, Geophys. Res. Let., 29, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015870, 2002.


Tzali, M., S. Sofianos, A. Mantziafou and N. Skliris, Modelling the impact of Black Sea water inflow on the North Aegean Sea hydrodynamics, Ocean Dynamics, DOI: 10.1007/s10236-010-0277-3, 2010.


Unluata, U., T. Oguz, M. A. Latif, E. Oszoy, On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits, In: Pratt, L.J. (Ed.), The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dordrecht, pp. 25– 60, 1990.



Valioulis, I., Y. Krestenitis, Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea, Part I. Wind stress, thermal and haline fluxes,  Ann. Geophys.., 12, 794–807, 1994.


Van Wambeke, F., U. Christaki, M. Bianchi, S. Psarra, A. Tselepides, Heterotrophic bacterial production in the Cretan Sea (NE Mediterranean),  Prog. Oceanogr., 46 (2– 4), 205–226, 2000.


Velaoras D. and A. Lascaratos, Deep Water mass characteristics and Interannual Variability in the Northern and Central Aegean Sea, J. Mar. Sys., 53, 59-85, 2005.

Velegrakis, A. F., E. Oikonomou, A. Theocharis, M. B. Collins, H. Kontoyiannis, V. Papadopoulos, G. Voulgaris, T. Wells, E. Balopoulos, Internal waves revealed by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery in the vicinity of the eastern Cretan Arc Straits (Eastern Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 44(4), 553-572, 1999.

Vervatis, V. D., S. S. Sofianos, and A. Theocharis, Distribution of the thermohaline characteristics in the Aegean Sea related to water mass formation processes (2005-2006 winter surveys), J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09034, doi:10.1029/2010JC006868, 2011.

Vervatis V. D., S. S. Sofianos, N. Skliris, S. Somot, A. Lascaratos and M. Rixen, Mechanisms controlling the thermohaline circulation pattern variability in the Aegean-Levantine region. A hindcast simulation (1960-2000) with an eddy resolving model, Deep-Sea Research I, 74, 82-97, 2013.

Vlahakis, G. N., R. S. Pollatou, Temporal variability of and spatial distribution of sea surface temperatures in the Aegean Sea, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 47, 15-23, 1993.


Vlasenko, V. I., N. M. Stashchuk, V. A. Ivanov, E. G. Nikolaenko, O. Uslu, H. Benli, Influence of the water exchange through the Dardanelles on the thermohaline structure of the Aegean Sea, Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., Monaco, 17, 147-165, 1996.


Voutsinou-Taliadouri, F., C. Zeri, E. I. Ovsjany, A. S. Romanov,  A. Moriki, A., Dissolved trace elements in an interrelated system: Black Sea and Aegean Sea, Proceedings International Conference Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: Similarities and Differences of two Interconnected Basins, Athens, 23–26 February 1999, p. 39, 1999.


Voutsinou-Taliadouri, F., C. Zeri, A. Moriki, Distribution and transfer of trace elements in the Aegean seawater (E. Mediterranean Basin), Med. Mar. Sci., 1 (2), 5– 13, 2000.



Wald, L., D. Georgopoulos, Atmospheric lee waves in the Aegean Sea and their possible influence on the sea surface, Boundary-Layer Meteor., 28, 309-315, 1984.


Wu, P., K. Haines, N. Pinardi, Toward an understanding of deep-water renewal in the Eastern Mediterranean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 443-458, 2000.


Wust, G., Remarks on the circulation of the intermediate and deep water masses in the Mediterranean Sea and the methods of their further exploration, In: Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Navale di Napoli, Vol. VIII, 28, 343–355, 1959.


Wust, G., On the vertical circulation of the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res.,

66, 3261–3271, 1961.



Zeri, C., F. Voutsinou-Taliadouri, A. S. Romanov, E. I. Ovsjany, A. Moriki, A comparative approach to dissolved trace element exchange in two interconnected basins: Black Sea and Aegean Sea, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40 (8), 666– 673, 2000.


Zervakis, V., D. Georgopoulos, P. G. Drakopoulos, The role of the North Aegean in triggering the recent Eastern Mediterranean climatic changes, J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C11), 26, 103–116, 2000.


Zervakis, V., D. Georgopoulos, Hydrology and circulation in the North Aegean (Eastern Mediterranean) throughout 1997-1998, Mediterranean Marine Science, 3(1), 5–20, 2001.


Zervakis, V., E. Krasakopoulou, D. Georgopoulos, E. Souvermezoglou, Vertical diffusion and oxygen consumption during stagnation periods in the deep North Aegean, Deep-Sea Res. I, 50, 53–71, 2003.

Zervoudaki S., E.D. Christou, G. Assimakopoulou, H. Orek, A.C. Gucu, A. Giannakourou, P. Pitta, T. Terbiyik, N. Yucel, T. Moutsopoulos, K. Pagou, S. Psarra, E. Ozsoy b, E. Papathanassiou, Copepod communities, production and grazing in the Turkish Straits System and the adjacent northern Aegean Sea during spring, J. Mar. Sys., 86, 45-56, 2011.

Zodiatis, G., Water mass circulation between the SE Ionian–W. Cretan basins through the western Cretan Arc straits, Bolletino Oceanologia Teorica ed Applicata, XI (1), 61–75, 1993.


Zodiatis, G., E. Balopoulos, Structure and characteristics of fronts in the north Aegean Sea, Bolletino Oceanologia Teorica ed Applicata, XI (2), 113-124, 1993.


Zodiatis, G., Circulation of the Cretan Sea water masses (Eastern Mediterranean), Oceanol. Acta, 16(2), 107-114, 1993.


Zodiatis, G., Advection of Black Sea water in the north Aegean Sea, Global Atmos. Ocean Syst., 2(1), 41-60, 1994.